Composer:Witold Lutosławski; Original title: Sacher Variation na wiolonczelę solo ; year of completion: ; instrumentation: cello solo; commission: Mścisław. Written as a 70th birthday tribute to Paul Sacher and based on the letters of his name. The work was requested by Mstislav Rostropovich, who gave the first. Witold Lutoslawski: Sacher Variation For Solo Cello Music Sales America Series Written as a 70th birthday tribute to Paul Sacher and based on the letters of his.

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Witold Lutosławski – Sacher Variation for solo cello () – Music Sales Classical

Disregarding whether it is a quaver or a semiquaver, the last note of the third and the following phrases have only one functionality: The longest presentation of the theme leads to a climax, in which the cello frantically repeats the first two notes in the series: Therefore, in the analysis, it has been considered appropriate to indicate the formations in which it is vaariations possible to explain the principles they based on clearly and to be restricted with the speculations on them.

The Sacher hexachord is nothing but the subject of these technics. The phrases, which consist only lutoslasski the note values of quaver and semi- quaver, are rhythmically in order, as well. The microtonal pitches, which are not contained by Thread I and thus which represent one of the main contrasting elements between the two formations, do not have a structural role in Thread II. Another remarkable characteristic of Thread II is that all the phrases except the last one end with the notes B flat and D flat, which may or may not be respectively.

However, unlike some of these examples, the row in Example 2 has nothing to do with the concept hexachordal ascher, which describes a particular construction of the twelve-tone row that consists of two hexachords which have in terms of the set theory the same prime forms, which means that the two hexachords are unchanged, inverted, or retrograded transpositions of each other see Cope Our website uses cookies to give you the best possible experience.


That the whole aural world, which is the primary foundation of the work, is going to be change if only one note in the Sacher hexachord is replaced with another one shows how integrated the Sacher hexachord with the overall structure of the work is.

Witold Lutoslawski: Sacher Variation For Solo Cello, Music Sales America – Hal Leonard Online

An intervention by the second strand releases the tension and the piece ends with a return of the theme — this time, however, given differently, in a surprisingly playful manner. Thread II contrasts with Thread I in every respect. His aleatory technique is essentially a contrapuntal one that gives performers a limited degree of freedom in the precise placing of notes in time.

The increase in the numerical quantity of the notes in the phrases is based on the simple principle shown in Table 1. Serial Composition and Atonality 6th edition. Beginning with 1 as the numerical quantity of the first phrase, the number of the notes in each one of the following phrases is determined by the sum of the rotation number and the numerical quantity of the former phrase.

The differences between the two threads of the work. In addition to that, these pitches are emphasized through the insistent repetition at the end of the second, third, fourth, sixth, and eighth phrases. Sacher Variation for cello solo. Log In Sign Up. Repeated again and again, it creates a long sequence of notes.

Besides all these, the Sacher hexachord, which is aurally in the fore- ground, does structurally not play any effective role in the work, such that variatinos row is varixtions in its original arrangement and without being trans- posed throughout the work. Since these pitches are used for the colouring and embellishment, they are not included in the analysis.

In reply to the systematic progression of the pitches of the Sacher hex- achord from the lowest to the highest register of the violoncello in Thread I, Thread II progresses from a higher register to the lowest. Neue Musik seit [New Music since ] 3rd edition.

As the first presentation of the Sacher hexachord in Thread I see Example 5the pitches of this phrase also are in the lowest octave register to be played by the violoncello.


The pitches of the Thread II divided into phrases. In sections of this strand there emerge successive, increasingly long fragments sounded loudly, as if they were chanted.

Besides that, each musical thread processes its material on its very own way. The two developmental processes related to the hexachord, namely the gradual extension of the phrases of Thread I and the progression of the hexachord from the lowest to the highest register of the violoncello throughout the work, should not be considered as technics applied particularly to the hexachord.

Witold Lutosławski

In other words, the development is provided by the global technics that can variatilns applied to any pitch material, and not by the Sacher hexachord itself. While Thread I uses a strictly working mechanism to organize pitches, the pitch material of Thread II is used freely, without being organized scaher.

It would not be surprising that a composer like Lutoslawski, who has often worked with cluster chords and determined chromatic fields, shows such an approach.

In this article, it has been assumed that the composer has a variatilns freedom to create his work regarding to the endless possibilities that music offers, that the technics and principles he uses are not obligations, but only means bringing results, and that the composer makes the decision where and in what extent he gives place to these technics and principles, or if he prefer a compositional process which is completely independent of them.

Techniques of the Contemporary Composer. University of California Press.

The Cambridge Companion to the Cello. It is not, as its title might suggest, in variation form, but a piece in which a six-note sequence gradually comes to the fore and takes precedence over other ideas which, besides being of an entirely different nature, are restricted to the remaining six notes of the chromatic scale sachre their neighbouring quarter-tones.

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