Mano Dura (Iron Fist) and the Ley Antimaras (Anti-Gang Law). Honduras. Social violence, (in)security, and security policies in Honduras and Central. America. Con la aprobación de la Ley Antimaras se sanciona con una pena de un fuerte lo que llevaba el Estado de Honduras, por lo que empezaron. cargo de las Fuerzas. Armadas. Reforma constitucional. Nueva Ley. Orgánica de la. Policía. Ley anti-maras. Reforma del. Código Penal. Crisis y reorganización.
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Hide Footnote A Spanish priest was convicted to two and a half years in jail, and freed on parole, on charges of bringing items illegally into prison.
The Construction of the Maras – 4. Case studies – Graduate Institute Publications
For every policeman or soldier the gangs killed, they had injured 7. At the core of a new approach should stand an acknowledgement of the social and economic roots of gang culture, ineradicable in the short term, alongside a concerted state effort to minimise the violence of illicit gang activity. These negotiated hondurws reportedly resulted in a more discriminating use of violence.
In Guatemala and Honduras, they also depend on extortion, but enjoy stronger relations with drug traffickers and other criminal groups. Freemium Recommend to your library for acquisition. However, during the first months ofhigh-ranking U.
4. Case studies
Prosecutors often manipulated or over-interpreted existing legal norms in order to be able to justify the detentions — a commonly used charge was drug possession for personal consumption Berlin et al. The Human Development Index is a combined statistic of life expectancy, education and per capita income indicators. The Salvadoran maras were able to enforce the truce due to their vertical leadership, the effectiveness of their punishment system, and their internal consensus around a number of demands.
In The Construction of the Maras: Police chiefs antlmaras government hoonduras continuously repeated such messages while the crackdown policies were in force Cruz The truce has nevertheless bequeathed a significant legacy.
The mara gangs that emerged in the late s responded in distinct ways to the social, geographic and institutional conditions of each Northern Triangle country. Likewise, the governments of Honduras and El Salvador could consider repealing their classification of gang crimes as terrorist activity in order to build confidence with the maras.
El déjà-vu de las políticas de seguridad en Honduras | Crisis Group
Hide Footnote This tendency was most marked in El Salvador, where the civil war of the s had familiarised the general public with sub-national areas run by the guerrilla. Crimes are not to be disregarded, and punishment for them is to be expected. Lately, they have ceased using noticeable tattoos to avoid being identified by security forces.
Hide Footnote In poor areas of Guatemala City, gang members have displaced families and drug traffickers have temporarily used their homes as warehouses.
In programs such as Iron Fist in El Salvador, the Sweep-Up Plan in Guatemala or Zero Tolerance in Honduras, mass incarceration, harsher prison conditions and recourse to extrajudicial executions provided varieties of punishment. Rounding up all gang members, or inviting gangs to an open-ended negotiation, represent a pair of extremes that have both proven fruitless in the Northern Triangle.
Rates of violent death in El Salvador have lately been higher than all countries suffering armed conflict except for Syria, with a murder rate of perinhabitants in and 81 in The first one stated they were not seeking to be acquitted of the charges against them, asked to be treated humanely, and requested support for their reintegration in civilian life through jobs and opportunities to study.
Smaller gangs later joined the process, which held up for several months. Crisis Group interview, expert in community security, 8 March From tothe annual homicide rate, for example, rose from 2, to 2, murders Wolf Within a week, homicidal violence dropped from fourteen to six murders a day.
Those of the innocent citizens representing the vast majority of the population, or those of the criminals violating the rights of others?
Gangs in effect provide a psychological crutch and a social life, especially for bored young men from broken families. Honduras enacted similar approaches under the Cero Tolerancia Zero Tolerance program, and Guatemala under the Plan Escoba Sweep up Plannatimaras was not formalised into law.
While the interim government was in power, homicide and abduction rates increased Ibid.: As the most important crime and revenue-raising business of the marasextortion is fundamental to understanding their resilience as well as the fear wntimaras have spread in their host societies.
Lastly, the hard-line approach was not designed to contain gang activity in the long run; it focused instead on increasing security in the short term by moving mareros from the streets into prison Bosworth Results per book Results per chapter.
Strengthened law enforcement is necessary, but should be implemented carefully to avoid any backlash and be mindful of the diversity of local criminal behaviour. Similar, albeit smaller scale initiatives could be explored in Honduras and Guatemala, while the U. Faced with scant access to school, limited social services and a sclerotic job market, they soon banded together and expanded.
The maras across the region remain a chronic social problem rooted in flawed economic and political development. Hide Footnote The cross-border links between these gangs in the three Northern Triangle countries, as well as reported connections between them and drug, arms and human trafficking organisations operating in the region, have spurred fears that these groups pose international security threats. In the Salvadoran case, this question is particularly interesting and challenging to answer when considering the electoral context of the gang suppression see Section 4.
Results of the poll taken at the end of and can be found here http: Inthe government started redistributing gang members across the prison system, and no longer respected the designation of special prisons for each organisation.
Subsequent to a speech act such a discourse needs to be acknowledged by one or several audiences.