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The groups, with descargad of their more representative languages in terms of their contribution to the Spanish lexicon, are shown below. While, as mentioned earlier, Latin and Arabic are part of what we have considered the baseline in this study, Spanish has borrowed words from both of these languages more recently.

Como vemos, uno de esos criterios hace referencia a la lengua. Other Latin-based dialects Astur-Leonese, Catalan, Galician-Portuguese and Navarro-Aragonese were also becoming independent, full-fledged languages during the 10 th and 11 th centuries Lapesa The results lapeaa Google Ngrams largely correlate with those of HathiTrust, especially in terms of the importance of Ancient and Western European languages.

In the first place, one of the two may become obsolete, as it is the case of the Old English word firenwhich was replaced by the French word crime Ringe and Taylor Equally importantly, writers tend to use the standard language unless it is to create a particular effect.

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With the expansion of the Roman Republic and Empire, between BC and AC, Vulgar ,a evolved into a continuum of overlapping varieties, some of which were mutually unintelligible, thus giving rise to many European languages, one of which was Spanish Penny Out of the 65, lemmas and lapeesa included in the DECH dictionary, 33, counted with etymology information we were able to extract.

A token is an individual unit in the natural language analysis of texts.

In linguistic terms, the colonial expeditions of the Spanish to the Americas in made Spanish more widely spoken and gave rise to more contact scenarios, in this case with various Amerindian languages. Deciding whether a word entered Spanish via Latin, or French, or Italian is extremely difficult if the word does not come from pre-Roman languages Varela Merino La lengua, como una necesidad social que es, necesariamente tiende a la universalidad; y la universalidad, una vez adquirida, es irrenunciable.


Therefore, we acknowledge that the number of loanwords from Latin is higher in reality but, unfortunately, this is a limitation of this otherwise highly specific and thorough dictionary.

1. Introduction

Con el objeto de responder a las mencionadas alarmas con un discurso persuasivo, Pidal se impone, en La unidad del idiomalos siguientes objetivos: For these reasons, studies that investigate the use of loanwords which have not been incorporated to dictionaries in casual speech or in texts that describe current affairs find a greater presence of English loanwords Esteban Asencio ; Gerding et al.

These type of words are simply not common in more casual types of texts but are nevertheless frequent in literature and specialized treaties such as the ones contained in the HathiTrust and Google Books Ngrams databases.

The case of Eastern European languages is perfect to speak to this question. After all, Spanish in all Spanish-speaking nations shares a dewcargar relation or a historical or political link with most of these languages. For instance, is there a quantifiable increase in the use of Japanese words in Korean between —? Raymond Carr, Spain2a ed. Loanwords and all types of innovations very often die soon after they are born and never become part deescargar language A.

Routledge, Joseph y Talbot J.

We classified the language tags that the DECH uses to define etymological origin in 10 categories in order to capture, in a group, a set of languages that would share a librro and temporal relation with regards to the Spanish espapla. Espinosa y Lawrence A. New inventions and discoveries, growing by leaps and bounds, required names. Layers of loanwords in a language such as the bulk of loanwords from Old Norse and French in English tell us about the past contacts between speakers of the donor and recipient languages, and the kind of words that were borrowed inform us about the nature of the contact Bynon In turn, nouns are borrowed more than any other part of speech such as adjectives or adverbs Matras Direct and prolonged contact with all this variety of languages produced several additions to the Spanish vocabulary Dworkin ; Penny In most cases, authors were monolingual and lived in stable monolingual zones.

This is more evident when we descend to the scale of years in our data. Second, the data needs to be of enough quality at the year level so that we can pinpoint specific years in which the influence is felt and recorded, which due to rhythms of cultural integration and production, it rarely coincides with years of publication of books.


During its birth and growth, Spanish descarvar not the only language spoken in the Iberian Peninsula. In order to draw stronger conclusions, two elements are needed. We do not need to wait for several generations to go by to realize that new words are being incorporated into a language, whether they are from foreign languages loanwords or whether they are newly coined in the language.

Despite containing several times more tokens ,, 1-grams, and 46, unique lemmasthe NGram dataset was smaller: There are some corpora for spoken Spanish: Therefore, these results correlate with those that claim that, while English has influenced Spanish vocabulary for centuries, it is only over the past 50 years that there has been a massive influx and use of these loanwords de la Cruz Cabanillas et al.

First, we have the strong and continued cultural influence of France through the Enlightenment. Spain and Greece have not established direct relations through lenua expansion, wars, or trading in the past centuries other than the one described in Footnote 2.

French, on the other hand, has donated more than 1, lexical items, many of which are not as frequent in Spanish as coche. It is possible, however, that the loanword from language B overlaps in a position that was already occupied in language A.

Loanwords in Spanish have proven this hypothesis right: We tried to minimize the extent of code and algorithm effects while preserving the accuracy and fidelity of the data. What can be observed in Figure 2 is, first of all, the preponderance of certain language groups, namely of Eastern and Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, of Ancient Europe and Iberian Peninsula.