NaCl dehydrates hydrophilic group nonionic surfactants. Therefore, CMC decreases. The length of the hydrophobic block polymer micelles is not reduced. All these substances are poorly soluble in water and therefore soy lecithin does not have CMC in an aqueous solution, The lecithin phospholipids can form. Nous supposerons que dans la phase aqueuse, la concentration de ces molécules est* égale à leur concentration micellaire critique (CMC). Considérons un.

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It was clear that no individual Table.

The apparatus is calibrated with toluene to obtain the apparatus ckncentration A. Users may find that some of the five surfactants appear to have little to distinguish them in the tests; some of them have peculiarities that may make users prefer one to the others.

In petroleum industry, CMC is considered prior to injecting surfactant in reservoir regarding enhanced oil recovery EOR application.

From to she worked at the Textile Conservation Center, then undertook two years of contract work at the Concnetration of London. He joined the Department of Conservation on its formation in Care was taken not to cut warp threads parallel to the new cut. The five surfactants listed above were tested with water as a control.

The fact that Synperonic N is no longer available has dealt a major blow to the conservation community critiquw Europe, where it was the surfactant of choice, as it was the only surfactant recommended by a scientist Plenderleith and has proved highly efficient on mucellaire and wool.


The variation between the cotton crituque was in all cases within the bounds of error, and thus they were discounted. Degradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates occurs by a progressive shortening of the polyoxyethylene hydrophilic chain, making the compound progressively less soluble and increasingly associative to other suspended solids. The combined list contained seven surfactants for further testing: The determination of surface tension from the maximum pressure in bubbles.

It was apparent from the readings how easily and rapidly woolen fabrics can discolor. This visual data analysis method is highly subjective and can lead to very different Conceentration values depending on the type of representation, the quality of the data and the chosen interval around the CMC.

In vitro studies showed that nonylphenol has an estragenic activity three to six orders of magnitude less potent than estradiol Jobling and Sumpter ; Jobling et al.

Journal of Applied Biosciences

An initial study of detergents and washing recipes for use in the conservation of textile objects. Therefore, the solubilization plays a minor role in detergents.

So, it is redundant to add more surfactant since it does not work well. Allocation of Sequence Number to Surfactant for Washing was By lengthening the washing time, the mechanical cleaning regime produced approximately the same color-change results as the manual hand washing table 3. Many standard soiled fabrics are commercially available; those used for these experiments were manufactured by Testfabrics. This little additional value is to cover the dissolution with existing brine in reservoir.


Initially the cleaning power of detergents is the most important consideration. British Standard for repair and allied processes for the conservation of documents— recommendations, BS To achieve this result, detergents with low fiber affinity are used, although this quality often reduces washing efficiency.

Below the CMC point, interfacial tension between oil and water phase is no longer effectively reduced. Fields joined the British Museum in as a conservation scientist and worked mainly on conservation science problems relating to organic materials.

JAIC , Volume 43, Number 1, Article 5 (pp. 55 to 73)

Transactions of the Faraday Society ; The fabric discs were placed on a Melinex sheet to dry overnight before the color was remeasured as described above. The textile discs were then placed faceup in a cm3conical flask with a screw-top stopper, and cm3of the test solution was added.

One such method for ethoxylates is a fifth of the percentage by weight of ethoxylate in the molecule Daniels Use dmy dates from April Glossaries and vocabularies Access Translation Bureau glossaries and vocabularies.

The washing followed the regime described in table 2.

A second set of samples was prepared in exactly the same manner, but these samples were not aged.