This standard is issued under the fixed designation C ; the number immediately 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C09 on. All the Controls products ASTM C standard. Enter now!. Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as C – 05a. 2 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website,

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Eventually, the tensile stresses caused by the increase in volume exceed the tensile strength of the concrete, causing cracks. Ions are electrically charged particles formed when atoms lose or gain electrons.

Federal Highway C12600, fhwa.

Signs of ASR are typically random map-cracking and spalled concrete. Alkali metals, for example, which are found in the far left column of the periodic table, have a single electron in their outermost band. Map cracking, also known as three-point cracking, can cause other issues as well, such as shrinkage. This document is currently not available here. The effects of clinker alkali content, aggregate reactivity, and sodium hydroxide NaOH solution concentration on the mortar expansion test results were also studied.

Stanton, began his research on a few of these structures and found an expansive reaction between cement and aggregate taking place.

Comments Frank, Great article that gives a simplified overview of ASR, expansion testing, and mitigation techniques. When lithium, sodium or potassium lose their single outermost electron, they become positively charged. Petrographic examination can conclusively identify ASR.

Petrography satm be used to classify an aggregate as potentially reactive, but expansion testing is required to c126 the extent of the reactivity and appropriate levels of prevention.

Cracking usually appears in areas with a frequent supply of moisture. If ASR has been identified by the specifying authority within the region, it is recommended that precast producers perform long-term testing on concrete samples. These empty voids, when created, allow the gel to migrate into the cracks. Atm results show that mortar-bar expansion was promoted with increased cement fineness regardless of clinker alkali, aggregate reactivity, or soak solution normality.


Highly reactive aggregate tended to be more sensitive to cement fineness and alkalinity. That is, if you have questions about the durability of your concrete, save some samples and leave them exposed to the elements.

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C is used as an initial screening test for aggregates and C determines the effectiveness of the SCM being considered to moderate the aggregate activity. This is a result of a number of aztm reactions. What we do know, however, is important for precasters to understand. Photo provided by Frank Bowen. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Lithium compounds have also been used, but they may be cost-prohibitive and limited in availability.

When dealing with ASR, a process that takes place over decades, accelerated tests should be conducted with bias. At least, this was the blame at the time. Publication Version Published Version.

“Effect of Portland Cement Fineness on ASTM C Expansion” by Faith Bektas, Kejin Wang et al.

Although cement fineness and clinker alkali content did not affect the classification in terms of potential reactivity of the aggregates used in this study, they might change the classification for the aggregates near the boundary between reactive and nonreactive aggregates.

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While the fundamental physical and chemical reactions remain poorly understood, it is well known that ASR destroys the durability of concrete and c1206 cause serious maintenance and reconstruction costs. By Frank Bowen A s I scrolled through the few articles and reports I have collected over the past decade regarding alkali-silica reactions, I began to realize I had developed an ignorance to this elusive subject.

The alkali content of cement is not a significant factor in affecting the expansion. Keep in mind that some cements contain a higher proportion of potassium sulfate K 2 SO 4 than sodium sulfate Na 2 SO 4. C is used to test the reactivity potential of aggregates, while C includes the use of secondary cementitious materials within the mortar bar samples to determine the effective reduction of ASR.

Mitigation methods can be split into those methods suitable for new concrete and those that can be used for existing structures.


The cracks radiate from the interior of the aggregate out into the surrounding paste. However, we must take the time to review the current ASTM standards and check our mix designs to assure material confidence. A petrographic examination of aggregate will give c1620 comprehensive description of the aggregate source and quantify the various rock and mineral constituents present.

However, this chemical approach, which alters the reaction gel c120 a less expansive nature, has us in what I feel to be the right direction. Metal atoms lose the electron, or electrons, in their highest energy level and become positively charged ions.

However, some cases of concrete failure could not be attributed to either of these causes, prompting a deeper investigation.


Development of a more economical and more abundant admixture may be the future astk ASR mitigation. This test is similar to C with a testing period of 14 days.

Regardless, here is a list of key ASR points for precasters to know: Frank Bowen, a Master Precaster graduate, received his M.

Non-metal atoms gain c260 electron, or electrons, from another atom to become negatively charged ions. Clinker alkali had no or little effect on moderately reactive aggregate; whereas it had considerable effect on highly reactive aggregate.

Great article that gives a simplified overview of ASR, expansion testing, and aatm techniques. In addition to discovering ASR, he was the first to explain that expansion was negligible when the alkali content of the cement was below 0.

It is important to understand the benefits and deficiencies offered by various testing procedures. The same goes for calcium, but since it is in the second column of the periodic table, it must lose two electrons for this to happen.