PDF | On Feb 1, , Andrea Del Pilar Uribe and others published Papilomatosis Equina. Papilomatosis Equina. Article (PDF Artritis Séptica en Potros. más empezar mi residencia en Cirugía equina en el A Lluís, por su La artritis séptica se define como la reacción inflamatoria aguda incitada por la. poliartritis septica. CM. Carlos Madrid. Updated 27 February Transcript. Antibioticos. poliartritis septica en potros. Gentamicina.
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PostalBotucatu, SPBrazil. PostalPirassununga, SPBrazil. Septic arthritis is a debilitating joint infectious disease of equines that requires early diagnosis and immediate therapeutic intervention to prevent degenerative effects on the articular cartilage, as well as loss of athletic ability and work performance of the animals.
Few studies have investigated the etiological complexity of this disease, as well as multidrug resistance of isolates. In this study, 60 horses with arthritis had synovial fluid samples aseptically collected, and tested by microbiological culture and in vitro susceptibility test disk diffusion using nine antimicrobials belonging to six different pharmacological groups.
Bacteria were isolated in 45 The present study emphasizes the etiological complexity of equine septic arthritis, and highlights the need to institute treatment based on the in vitro susceptibility pattern, due to the multidrug resistance of isolates. According to the available literature, this is the first report in Brazil on the investigation of the etiology. Joint infectious diseases; horses; etiology; antimicrobial resistance; arthritis.
Equines are in contact with humans for thousands years, being used for transport, work, leisure, food, entertainment, sports and, more recently, to recovery of adults and children with cognitive or psychomotor problems Thomassian Brazil has the fourth largest herd of equines of the world, with about 8, animals, and it only behind of China, Mexico, and EUA. Horse breeding and raising generate 3. In addition, Brazil ranks eighth in worldwide horse meat exports, selling the product to Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, Japan, France, and the United States Brasil Joint diseases are problematic conditions for horses and can lead to permanent lameness, functional incapacity, or death due to septic shock in severe cases Beccati et al.
Septic arthritis is an inflammatory process of the joints caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses Taylor et al. It is possible that all joint structures are affected, which may cause clinical manifestations according to the location of the lesion BertoneOlive et al.
Septic arthritis is usually caused by bacteria. Pathogens reach the joint via blood, local invasion traumatic inoculationor by iatrogenic eauinos, a consequence of local contamination after direct infiltration of a drug into the joint Colahan et al. The clinical signs of the septic arthritis in equines include lameness of variable intensity, edema, local hyperthermia, effusion, and marked sensitivity to pain at palpation ThomassianSteel et al.
In its initial course, diagnosis is based on clinical signs, rigorous clinical examination of the affected joints and limbs, and identification of potential risk factors in the anamnesis recent traumas, intra-articular injections, systemic diseases, and immunosuppression Olive et al.
Diagnosis is confirmed by arthrocentesis, followed by laboratory analysis artrritis the synovial fluid, microbial culture, in vitro susceptibility test, and imaging tests of the affected joint Taylor et al. In septic arthritis, the synovial fluid can be turbid, with purulent or hemorrhagic aspect, and may present altered viscosity. The liquid shows increased inflammatory cell counts and protein concentration Haerdi-Landerer et al.
Early diagnosis of the causative agent is necessary, because many animals artritid rapidly to chronic and debilitating lesions, and the animal may not support its weight on the affected limb. Consequently, the animal will gradually lose joint function, tending to decubitus and leading sptica a poor prognosis Forresu et al.
Treatment focuses on the use of antimicrobial drugs and articular drainage, and aims at the elimination of the causative agent, and removal of cell debris and fibrin from the join, which may damage the articular cartilage Haerdi-Landerer et al.
Microbial culture, associated with the in vitro susceptibility tests, increases therapy efficiency MortonTaylor et al. Broad spectrum antimicrobials and those that reach high intra-articular concentrations should be preferred Schneider et al. Nevertheless, to date, the prevalence of drug resistance or the degree of multidrug resistance of pathogens isolated from septic equine arthritis is unclear or unnoticed. Despite the severity of the clinical cases of septic arthritis, few comprehensive studies have investigated the etiologic complexity of the disease Schneider et al.
In Brazil, no systemized study has been focused on the main pathogens causing septic arthritis, in large number of equines, or on the investigation of multidrug resistance of the isolates.
Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the microbial etiology of septic arthritis in 60 horses, as well as the occurrence of multidrug resistance of the isolates to the main antimicrobials used to treat the disease in this species.
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Sixty horses with septic arthritis, 28 The animals showed the following distribution according to breed: Age ranged from 2 to 11 years, with 20 The artriti joints were sampled: No antimicrobials were used in horses sampled. Multidrug resistance was considered when one isolate showed simultaneous resistance to three or more antimicrobials Schwarz et al.
The most prevalent microorganisms were streptococci and enterobacteria, followed by staphylococci, order Actinomycetales, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Table 1. Groups and microorganisms artrifis from 60 samples of synovial fluid from horses with septic arthritis.
Rio Verde, GO, Brazil, The results on the most relevant antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for the isolates are show in Table 2. Simultaneous drug resistance to three argritis more groups of drugs was observed in 11 In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility profile disk diffusion method of microorganisms from equines with septic arthritis. We highlight in this study the complexity of groups and pathogens identified in septic arthritis of horses, as well eh the multidrug resistance of the isolates to conventional antimicrobials recommended for the treatment of infectious diseases of the joints.
Particularly in artriyis, these pathogens are linked to the occurrence of strangles, a highly prevalent disease of the upper respiratory tract Waller et al. The wide occurrence of these pathogens causing septic arthritis in horses can be justified by the presence of this group of microorganisms on the skin of animals, making it easy for weptica inoculation into the articular region, contamination of intra-articular administration of drugs iatrogenic route Steel et al. In addition, Pelkonen et al.
Staphylococci were also isolated from many animals in this study. Similar to the streptococci group, these microorganisms are found on the skin, conjunctival and mucous membranes, and may cause opportunistic infections in the joint by traumatic inoculation, iatrogenic or systemic routes Benites et al. Moreover, Taylor et al.
Enterobacteria presented high rates of isolation in the sampled horses. This complex group belongs to enteric microbiota of animals. They are responsible by enteric and extra-enteric opportunistic infections in animals, and have a wide and diverse set of virulence factors Quinn et al. The high occurrence of enterobacteria in the synovial fluid samples of horses is in agreement with similar septixa in other countries Schneider et al.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that affects humans and animals, and usually causes waterborne disease. It is found in the environment, intestinal tract of animals, or contaminated surgical materials. In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been isolated in two animals with septic arthritis, probably septca to contamination with water, needles during intra-articular inoculation of drugs, or feces from the environment Steel et al.
The order Actinomycetales is a heterogeneous group of microorganisms relevant to animal and human equinoss, once they are related to high-impact livestock diseases i.
Nocardia asteroides and Trueperella pyogenes are aerobic actinomycetes related to opportunistic pyogranulomatous infectious in livestock Quinn et al. Different species of Nocardia are found on the ground, particularly in sites where soil, organic material, and high humidity are found. Trueperella pyogenes is found septida the skin and mucous membranes of the animals, and is usually transmitted by flies Ribeiro et al. Although the occasional occurrence of this microorganism in horses, as observed in this study, lesions caused by these pathogens are intensely pyogenic, of difficult sn repair, and usually refractory to the treatment with conventional antimicrobials, which frequently leads to chronic processes with poor prognosis Quinn et al.
Rhodococcus equi is the main cause of morbidity and mortality by pneumonia in foals up to 6 months. In foals, the bacterium causes infectious or immune-mediated joint diseases. In immune-mediated conditions, the disease is secondary to the deposition of immune complexes on the joint, and it is not possible to isolate the bacterium from the synovial fluid. Here, Rhodococcus equi was detected in only one equine with septic arthritis, probably following a disseminated infection from the lung or intestines.
In addition, some uncommon microorganisms in horses may occasionally cause joint, ligament, and bursa lesions secondary to systemic infections, i. These microorganisms need selective media arrritis optimal oxygen tension conditions to be isolated, which were not used in the present study. All these factors may justify, in part, the negative isolation of the microorganisms in 15 samples of synovial fluid.
No statistical association was observed between the isolated pathogens and age, breed, gender, use of the animals, and anatomical location of the sampled joints. These results agree with similar studies from other countries, in which no influence from the same variables were observed in septic joint diseases in horses Carstanjen et al. However, in the current study, greater occurrence of equine septic arthritis was observed in Quarter Miles, Mangalarga Marchador, Paint Equnios, and mixed breeds ranging from years, with lesions on tarsal, carpal, and femoro-tibio-patellar joints.
The bias of septic arthropathies in these breeds and age can be attributed to the use of these animals in the studied region, particularly for entertainment and sport tie-down roping, riding, barrel racing, and marching ; which require ratritis use, exposing and predisposing the animals to tarsal and carpal lesions, as well as lesions in patella and fetlock.
Interestingly, penicillin, enrofloxacin, and amikacin are the antimicrobials of choice in the treatment of equine septic arthritis MortonHaerdi-Landerer et al. In addition, 11 Based on these artritls, the selection of first-choice antimicrobial therapy should be based euinos regional in vitro resistance artritks.
This study highlights the complexity of bacterial agents involved in equine septic arthritis, with predominance of streptococci and enterobacteria groups, and reinforces the importance of in vitro susceptibility patterns artriyis isolated pathogens to improve the success of therapy protocols. This is the first report of septic arthritis in a large zrtritis of affected horses in Brazil, showing diversity of the etiology and multidrug resistance of the isolates.
Roca, Rio de Janeiro.
Infe ctious arthritis, p. EdsDiagnosis Management of Lameness in the Horse. Septic arthritis in adult horses. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing.
Equine Medicine and Surgery. Mosby, St Louis, Missouri. Arttritis bicipital bursitis, tendonitis and arthritis of the scapulohumeral joint in a mare. Slow release antibiotics for treatment of septic arthritis in large ratritis. Surgical treatment of septic physitis in 17 foals. Diagnosis and treatment of septic arthritis.
Transmission of Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus infection from horses to humans. Veterinary Microbiology and Microbial Disease. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford.
artritis septica en caballos pdf
Trueperella pyogenes multispecies infections in domestic animals: Assessing the antimicrobial susceptibility of artritjs obtained from animals. Elsevier Saunders, St Louis. Risk of septic arthritis after intra-articular medication: Bacterial culture of septic synovial strutures of horses: LTC, Rio de Janeiro.