The Motorola (“sixty-eight-oh-nine”) is an 8-bit microprocessor CPU with some bit There were also variants such as the 68A09(E) and 68B09(E); the internal letter . MC Datasheet; Motorola (Freescale); 36 pages; Z80H, A-2, B, 68B09 and the DSP processor, the AD CMOS, 5µs 8-Bit Sampling ADC Data Sheet Submit feedback for this data sheet. EF68B09 datasheet EF68B09 component EF68B09 integrated circuit EF68B09 schematic EF68B09 application note F68B09 68B09 8B09 EF68B0 EF68B EF68 .
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The Motorola ” sixty-eight-oh-nine ” is an 8-bit microprocessor CPU with some bit features from Motorola.
It was designed by Terry Ritter and Joel Boney and introduced in It was a major advance over both its predecessor, the Motorolaand the related MOS Technology Among the systems to use the are the Dragon home computers, TRS Color Computerthe Vectrex home console, and early s arcade machines including DefenderRobotron: Unlike the dataeheetthe allowed fully position-independent code and fully reentrant code in a simple and straightforward way, without using difficult programming tricks.
Along with theit was also one of the first microprocessors to implement a hardware multiplication instruction, and it features full bit arithmetic and an especially fast interrupt system. Among the significant enhancements introduced in the were the use of two 8-bit accumulators A and B, which could be combined into a single bit registerDtwo bit index registers X, Y and two bit stack pointers.
Dafasheet index and stack registers allowed datashdet addressing modes. Program counter relative addressing allowed for the easy creation of position-independent codewhile a user stack pointer U facilitated the 68b9 of reentrant code. The was assembler source-compatible with thethough the had 78 instructions to the ‘s Some instructions were replaced by more general ones which the assembler translated into equivalent operations and some were even replaced by addressing modes.
The instruction set and register complement were highly orthogonalmaking the easier to program datasheer the or Like thethe included an undocumented address bus test instruction which came to be nicknamed Halt and Catch Fire HCF. Unlike contemporary processors that often used a microcoded architecture such darasheet the and partly thethe ‘s internal design was more similar to early simple CPU designs and to some degree also the RISC machines that appeared in the mid s and onwards.
Like most 8-bit microprocessors, datassheet implementation could in large parts be viewed as a register-transfer level RTL machine, using a central PLA less combinational logic to implement much of the instruction decoding as well as parts of the sequencing.
Just like the andthe uses a two-phase clock to gate the latches. This two phase clock cycle is used as a full machine cycle in these processors.
Simple instructions could therefore execute in as little as two or three such cycles, although this also means that these cycles must be pretty slow. As a comparison, the higher resolution state machine of a CPU like the Z80 datasneet clock frequencies times as high with the same speed memory chips, which was often the limiting factor. This is because the Z80 combines two full but short clock cycles into a relatively long memory access period compared to the clock, while the more asynchronous instead has relatively short memory access times: The had an internal two-phase clock generator needing only an external crystal whereas the E needed an external clock generator.
There were also variants such as the 68A09 E and 68B09 E ; the 68b9 letter indicates the processor’s rated clock speed. Faster versions were produced later by Hitachi. With little to improve, the marks the end of the evolution of Motorola’s 8-bit processors; Motorola intended that future 8-bit products would be based on an 8-bit data bus version of the the A micro-controller version with a slightly modified instruction set, thewas discontinued as late as ddatasheet second decade of the 21st century.
The is sometimes considered to be the conceptual precursor of the Motorola family of processors, though this is mostly a misunderstanding: However, there is a certain amount of design philosophy similarity e. The design team believed that future system integrators would look to off-the-shelf code in ROMs to handle common tasks.
In order to speed time to market, common code modules would be purchased, rather than developed in-house, and integrated into systems with code from other manufacturers. An example of standard ROM code might be binary floating point arithmetic, which is a common requirement in many systems.
Drawing routines for graphics primitives, Lempel-Ziv LZ77 or LZ78 data compression and decompression, and string searching e. For yet another example, Motorola’s official programming manual  contains the full listing of assist09a so-called monitora miniature operating system intended to be burned in ROM.
Since the programmer of a common code daasheet could hardly guarantee where this code would be located in a catasheet system, the design focused heavily on support of position-independent code that can be freely located anywhere in the memory map without modification.
The design also focused on supporting reentrant code, code that can be called from various different programs concurrently without concern for coordination between them, or that can recursively call itself. The industry solved the problem of integrating code modules from multiple separate sources by using automatic relocating linkers and loaders—which is still the solution used today—instead of using relocatable ROM modules. However, the decisions made by the design team yielded a very powerful processor and made possible advanced operating systems like OS-9 and UniFlexwhich took advantage of the position-independence, re-entrancy orientated nature of the to create multi-user multitasking operating darasheet.
68b09 datasheet & applicatoin notes – Datasheet Archive
The Hitachi was an enhanced version of the with extra registers and additional instructions, including block move, additional multiply instructions and hardware-implemented division. It was used in unofficially-upgraded Tandy Color Computer 3 computers and a version of OS-9 was written to take advantages catasheet the ‘s extra features: Motorola spun off its microprocessor division in The division changed its name to Freescale and has subsequently been acquired by NXP.
In fallQualcomm and NXP announced that they would merge.
As of spring the planned merger had yet to occur,  and in Julythe Chinese merger authority did not approve the acquisition before the deadline set by Qualcomm; it was effectively canceled on 26 July Neither Motorola nor Hitachi produce processors or derivatives anymore. Some opcodes also live on in the Freescale embedded processors.
In addition to home computers and game consoles, the was also used in a number of arcade games released during the early to mids.
68B09 – Arcade Chips
Williams Electronics was an especially prolific user of the processor, which was deployed in arcade hits such as DefenderJoustSinistarand Robotron: Williams also used the processor in many of its solid-state pinball machines; the CPU formed the core of the successful Williams Pinball Controller.
The CPU was also used in traffic signal controllers made in the s by several different manufacturers. Software development company Microware datashert the original OS-9 operating system not to be confused with the more recent Mac OS 9 for thelater porting it to the and i series of microprocessors.
The latter used the E as their main CPU. Hitachi produced its own based machines, the MB and later the S1. These were primarily for the Japanese market, but some were exported to and sold in Australia. TSC produced a Unix-like operating system uniFlex which ran only on such machines.
OS-9 Level II, also took advantage of such memory management facilities.
(PDF) EF68B09 Datasheet download
The very first Macintosh prototype, wire-wrapped by Burrell Smithcontained a These controllers were used as the central processors in many of Motorola’s trunked two-way radio communications systems. This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November and incorporated under the “relicensing” terms of the GFDLversion 1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archived from the original on Retrieved April 22, Simpson; Raveendran Paramesran Advanced 8-bit Microprocessor, MC Retrieved 2 April Motorola-Freescale-NXP processors and microcontrollers.
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